Proposed timber tower would be a tall order drink of water for NYC

The Central Park Tower would rise to a height of 712 ft (217 m), making it the world’s tallest timber tower

New York City’s DFA Studio recently unveiled a blue sky proposal for an observation tower in Central Park. If built, it would be the world’s tallest timber structure and offer excellent views of NYC. Interestingly, it would also filter the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir and turn it into a freshwater pond for everyone’s use.

Looking a little like a throwing dart with its slender form and long lightning rod spire, the Central Park Tower would rise to a total height of 712 ft (217 m). Inside, it would include some retail and restaurant kiosks, as well as a viewing platform offering 360-degree views of the area.

The tower would be made primarily from Glulam (glue-laminated timber), as was used extensively in the Oslo Airport extension. However, the design is actually quite complex structurally and would include a steel core, intricate wooden helix, and transparent PVC skin, and be anchored with a concrete base and stabilizing cables.

The integrated filtration system would be used to filter the currently fenced-off Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir (aka Central Park Reservoir), which non-locals may recognize as the big body of water featured in movies

es like Breakfast at Tiffany’s, turning it into a pond that could be used for all. One example shown is the water being used for sailboats.

“Located in the heart of Central Park, near some of New York’s most important cultural institutions, the underutilized 106-acre [42.9 hectare] body of water occupies one-eighth of the park’s total area and is 40-feet [12 m] deep, with approximately 1 billion gallons of contaminated water,” says the firm. “Aside from supplying water to the pool and Harlem Meer, the reservoir sits stagnant and fenced off due to its current state as a health threat to millions of New Yorkers, tourists and animals.”

The filtration system would be located in the tower’s lower section, within its steel core. The firm says that the considerable power necessary for running it would be met with a vertical axis wind turbine, which, though we’ve no figures to look at, seems a stretch.

DFA Studio also reports that thanks to prefabricated construction methods, the tower could be built as quickly as six months, though describes it as a “temporary” structure, so presumably its lifespan would be quite limited. Either way, we’ll stick our necks out and say this ambitious idea is unlikely to be built.

Source: DFA Studio

Henry Sapiecha

Plastic fibres found in piped tap water around the world, report reveals

Exclusive: Tests show billions of people globally are drinking water contaminated by plastic particles, with 83% of samples found to be polluted

The average number of fibres found in each 500ml sample ranged from 4.8 in the US to 1.9 in Europe. Photograph: Michael Heim/Alamy

Microplastic contamination has been found in tap water in countries around the world, leading to calls from scientists for urgent research on the implications for health.

Scores of tap water samples from more than a dozen nations were analysed by scientists for an investigation by Orb Media, who shared the findings with the Guardian. Overall, 83% of the samples were contaminated with plastic fibres.

The US had the highest contamination rate, at 94%, with plastic fibres found in tap water sampled at sites including Congress buildings, the US Environmental Protection Agency’s headquarters, and Trump Tower in New York. Lebanon and India had the next highest rates.

European nations including the UK, Germany and France had the lowest contamination rate, but this was still 72%. The average number of fibres found in each 500ml sample ranged from 4.8 in the US to 1.9 in Europe.

The new analyses indicate the ubiquitous extent of microplastic contamination in the global environment. Previous work has been largely focused on plastic pollution in the oceans, which suggests people are eating microplastics via contaminated seafood.

“We have enough data from looking at wildlife, and the impacts that it’s having on wildlife, to be concerned,” said Dr Sherri Mason, a microplastic expert at the State University of New York in Fredonia, who supervised the analyses for Orb. “If it’s impacting [wildlife], then how do we think that it’s not going to somehow impact us?”

A magnified image of clothing microfibres from washing machine effluent. One study found that a fleece jacket can shed as many as 250,000 fibres per wash. Photograph: Courtesy of Rozalia Project

A separate small study in the Republic of Ireland released in June also found microplastic contamination in a handful of tap water and well samples. “We don’t know what the [health] impact is and for that reason we should follow the precautionary principle and put enough effort into it now, immediately, so we can find out what the real risks are,” said Dr Anne Marie Mahon at the Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, who conducted the research.

Mahon said there were two principal concerns: very small plastic particles and the chemicals or pathogens that microplastics can harbour. “If the fibres are there, it is possible that the nanoparticles are there too that we can’t measure,” she said. “Once they are in the nanometre range they can really penetrate a cell and that means they can penetrate organs, and that would be worrying.” The Orb analyses caught particles of more than 2.5 microns in size, 2,500 times bigger than a nanometre.

Microplastics can attract bacteria found in sewage, Mahon said: “Some studies have shown there are more harmful pathogens on microplastics downstream of wastewater treatment plants.”

Tap water is widely contaminated by plastic

Microplastics are also known to contain and absorb toxic chemicals and research on wild animals shows they are released in the body. Prof Richard Thompson, at Plymouth University, UK, told Orb: “It became clear very early on that the plastic would release those chemicals and that actually, the conditions in the gut would facilitate really quite rapid release.” His research has shown microplastics are found in a third of fish caught in the UK.

The scale of global microplastic contamination is only starting to become clear, with studies in Germany finding fibres and fragments in all of the 24 beer brands they tested, as well as in honey and sugar. In Paris in 2015, researchers discovered microplastic falling from the air, which they estimated deposits three to 10 tonnes of fibres on the city each year, and that it was also present in the air in people’s homes.

This research led Frank Kelly, professor of environmental health at King’s College London, to tell a UK parliamentary inquiry in 2016: “If we breathe them in they could potentially deliver chemicals to the lower parts of our lungs and maybe even across into our circulation.” Having seen the Orb data, Kelly told the Guardian that research is urgently needed to determine whether ingesting plastic particles is a health risk.

The new research tested 159 samples using a standard technique to eliminate contamination from other sources and was performed at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health. The samples came from across the world, including from Uganda, Ecuador and Indonesia.

How microplastics end up in drinking water is for now a mystery, but the atmosphere is one obvious source, with fibres shed by the everyday wear and tear of clothes and carpets. Tumble dryers are another potential source, with almost 80% of US households having dryers that usually vent to the open air.

“We really think that the lakes [and other water bodies] can be contaminated by cumulative atmospheric inputs,” said Johnny Gasperi, at the University Paris-Est Créteil, who did the Paris studies. “What we observed in Paris tends to demonstrate that a huge amount of fibres are present in atmospheric fallout.”

Plastic fibres may also be flushed into water systems, with a recent study finding that each cycle of a washing machine could release 700,000 fibres into the environment. Rains could also sweep up microplastic pollution, which could explain why the household wells used in Indonesia were found to be contaminated.

In Beirut, Lebanon, the water supply comes from natural springs but 94% of the samples were contaminated. “This research only scratches the surface, but it seems to be a very itchy one,” said Hussam Hawwa, at the environmental consultancy Difaf, which collected samples for Orb.

This planktonic arrow worm, Sagitta setosa, has eaten a blue plastic fibre about 3mm long. Plankton support the entire marine food chain. Photograph: Richard Kirby/Courtesy of Orb Media

Current standard water treatment systems do not filter out all of the microplastics, Mahon said: “There is nowhere really where you can say these are being trapped 100%. In terms of fibres, the diameter is 10 microns across and it would be very unusual to find that level of filtration in our drinking water systems.”

Bottled water may not provide a microplastic-free alternative to tapwater, as the they were also found in a few samples of commercial bottled water tested in the US for Orb.

Almost 300m tonnes of plastic is produced each year and, with just 20% recycled or incinerated, much of it ends up littering the air, land and sea. A report in July found 8.3bn tonnes of plastic has been produced since the 1950s, with the researchers warning that plastic waste has become ubiquitous in the environment.

“We are increasingly smothering ecosystems in plastic and I am very worried that there may be all kinds of unintended, adverse consequences that we will only find out about once it is too late,” said Prof Roland Geyer, from the University of California and Santa Barbara, who led the study.

Mahon said the new tap water analyses raise a red flag, but that more work is needed to replicate the results, find the sources of contamination and evaluate the possible health impacts.

She said plastics are very useful, but that management of the waste must be drastically improved: “We need plastics in our lives, but it is us that is doing the damage by discarding them in very careless ways.”

Henry Sapiecha

10 of the Most Dangerous Waters in the World ….BEWARE VIDEO SHOWS.

The world is 70 percent water, so it’s probably a good thing that the stuff is good for us. We can drink it, swim in it, grow food with it, and just plain live because of it. However, certain bodies of water are shockingly mean to us. Interacting with some lakes and rivers can hurt us, make us sick, or even kill us.

Hello guys and today we’re talking about 10 Bodies Of Water That Want You Dead

#10. Boiling Lake Dominica
Whoever named this place was certainly no fan of subtlety: Boiling Lake is exactly what it sounds like. Discovered in 1870 by two Englishmen, temperatures taken five years later ranged anywhere from 82 to 91.5 °C.

#9. Citarum River West Java, Indonesia
Here we have a body of water that can destroy us, but only because we screwed it up. Citarum River might well be the most polluted, trash-filled bit of water on the planet.

#8. Rio Tinto Spain
Rio Tinto is among the most acidic bodies of water around, with a pH balance of 2, at best. This means the Rio Tinto is as strong as stomach acid and is more than powerful enough to kill any fish that dare swim in it.

#7. Lake Kivu Of DRC And Rwanda
Three hundred meters (1,000 ft) below the surface of Lake Kivu lies a ticking time bomb. Over 250 cubic kilometers (60 cubic miles) of carbon dioxide, along with around 65 cubic kilometers (15 cubic miles) of methane gas, lurks under this body of water, enough to provide electricity to several countries.

#6. The Rivers Of Johannesburg South Africa
Catching E. coli is no fun under normal circumstances; now imagine you were literally swimming in the stuff.

#5. Blackwater River Virginia, USA
Too much water can be a bad thing, even if the water can’t kill you otherwise.

#4. Tualatin River Oregon, USA
Oregon’s Tualatin River is not the place to be if you want to take your dogs for a swim; close to a dozen pups die there every year from exposure to toxic blue-green algae.

#3. Lake Karachay Russia
Like a supermodel with a bomb strapped underneath her bodice, Russia’s Lake Karachay is pristine, gorgeous, and incredibly deadly. It is, without question, the most radioactive body of water on the planet.

#2. Belle Fourche River And South Dakota, USA
Belle Fourche isn’t poisonous, boiling, or radioactive. However, it is turbulent and wild, at least in one particular area.

#1. Potomac River Maryland–West Virginia Border, USA
Though the only thing most people know about the Potomac is that Washington, DC is situated on it, the legendary river can also be associated with something else: horrible deaths.

Thank you for watching!!! Does anyone want to come over and swim with me?

OOO

Henry Sapiecha

35 WORLD HOT SPOTS FOR THE CLEAREST WATER SWIMMING

Don your go-pro cam & explore these wonderworlds or ‘waterworlds’ more to the point

1…Linipacan-islands-Palawan-Philippines

2…Maldives- 

3…Dog-Island-San-Blas-Panama

4…Cayo Coco Cuba

5…Carla Marcarelleta Menorca Spain 

6…Sua Trench Samoa

7…Crater Lake Oregon

8…Sabah-Mantanani Islands Borneo

9…

10…

11…

12…

13…

14…

15…

16…

17…

18…

19…

20…

Mains water pipe bursts in Kiev Ukraine causing severe damage as seen in this video

Water mains pipe bursts in Kiev street causing massive damage to surroundings in this video

Henry Sapiecha

Surprising Source of Arsenic in Your Drinking Water—Will EPA Take Steps to Protect Your Health?

Pure water is one of the most important foundations for optimal health. Unfortunately, most tap water is far from pure, containing a vast array of disinfection byproducts, chemicals, heavy metals and even pharmaceutical drugs. Fluoride and arsenic are two prime examples of hazardous water contaminants.

Not only is the level of arsenic in US tap water high due to natural groundwater contamination, the most commonly used form of fluoride added to water supplies also tends to be contaminated with arsenic. As reported by the featured article:

“In early August, the Environmental Protection Agency is set to decide on a petition to change the source of fluoride in US drinking water.

Currently, the source of fluoride in most public water supplies is fluorosilicic acid, according to government records. The petition calls for the EPA to instead require the use of pharmaceutical-grade sodium fluoride in water fluoridation, which is the addition of fluoride to drinking water for the purpose of preventing cavities.

Fluorosilicic acid is often contaminated with arsenic, and recent research has linked the arsenic from fluorosilicic acid in drinking water to as many as 1,800 extra cases of cancer yearly in the United States…”

The petition was submitted by William Hirzy, a chemistry researcher at the American University in Washington, D.C. Hirzy previously worked at the EPA for 27 years.

His team recently published a study entitled: “Comparison of hydrofluorosilicic acid and pharmaceutical sodium fluoride as fluoridating agents – a cost-benefit analysis”, in the journal Environmental Science & Policy.

According to their estimation, switching the type of fluoride used to pharmaceutical-grade sodium fluoride would reduce the amount of inorganic arsenic contamination in drinking water by 99 percent!

The Health Dangers of Inorganic Arsenic

Inorganic arsenic is a powerful carcinogen that has been linked to an increased risk of several types of cancer. In 2001, the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) lowered the maximum level of arsenic permitted in drinking water from 50 ug/L to 10 ug/L (or 10 parts per billion (ppb)) due to the established cancer risk.

The Natural Resources Defense Council estimates that as many as 56 million Americans living in 25 states drink water with arsenic at unsafe levels. According to the EPA:

“Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure is known to be associated with adverse health effects on several systems of the body, but is most known for causing specific types of skin lesions (sores, hyperpigmentation, and other lesions) and increased risks of cancer of the lungs and skin.”

Other impacts of chronic arsenic exposure include, according to the EPA:
  • Kidney damage and failure
  • Anemia
  • Low blood pressure
  • Shock
  • Headaches
  • Weakness
  • Delirium
  • Increased risk of diabetes
  • Adverse liver and respiratory effects, including irritation of mucous membranes
  • During development, increased incidence of preterm delivery, miscarriage, stillbirths, low birth weight, and infant mortality
  • During childhood, decreased performance in tests of intelligence and long-term memory
  • Skin lesions

Water Fluoridation Chemicals Are NOT Pharmaceutical Grade

While naturally-occurring arsenic in groundwater is one of the most common sources of exposure, hydrofluorosilicic acid—the most commonly used form of fluoride added to water supplies—is a toxic waste product from the phosphate fertilizer industry that is commonly contaminated with arsenic, radionucleotides, aluminum and other industrial contaminants.

According to the featured research, diluted fluorosilic acid adds, on average, about 0.08 ppb of arsenic to your drinking water.

Most people are shocked when they realize that the fluoride added to their water supply is actually a toxic byproduct from the fertilizer industry, opposed to a pharmaceutical-grade chemical. The source of most water fluoridation chemicals is explained by Michael Miller, a minerals commodity specialist for the US Geological Survey, in the featured article:

During the production of phosphate fertilizer, phosphate ore is reacted with sulfuric acid to produce toxic gases. These are taken out of the air after being sprayed with water, which produces fluorosilicic acid… The solution is sold to water systems nation-wide, where it is diluted and put into drinking water. Occasionally, it is treated to create sodium fluorosilicate. Together, these compounds (called silicofluorides) provide fluoride to 90 percent of U.S. drinking water systems that are fluoridated.

Water Fluoridation May Be Placing Infants at Great Risk

Not only is there mounting evidence that fluoride poses grave health risks to infants and children—including reductions in IQ—arsenic exposure in utero and during early childhood is also particularly problematic, as it can cause lasting harm to children’s developing brains, and endocrine and immune systems.

For example:
  • A 2006 study found that Chileans exposed to high levels (peaking at 1,000 ppb) of naturally-occurring arsenic in drinking water in utero and during early childhood had a six times higher lung cancer death rate compared to Chileans living in areas with lower levels of arsenic in their water. And their mortality rate in their 30s and 40s from another form of lung disease was almost 50 times higher than for people without that arsenic exposure.
  • A 2004 study showed children exposed to arsenic in drinking water at levels above 5 ppb had lower IQ scores. Earlier studies have linked chronic arsenic exposure to a range of cognitive dysfunctions, including learning disabilities, memory problems, poor concentration, and peripheral and central neuropathies.
  • A study published in 2011 examined the long-term effects of low-level exposure on more than 300 rural Texans whose groundwater was estimated to have arsenic at median levels below the federal drinking-water standard. It also found that exposure was related to poor scores in language, memory, and other brain functions.

Is It Worth Increasing Cancer Risk for Minimal, if Any, Benefit to Teeth?

Some proponents of fluoridation believe that the large dilution of these fluoridating chemicals that takes place when they are added at the public water works ameliorates concerns about the known contaminants. However, arsenic is a known human carcinogen, for which there is no safe level.

Inevitably, the addition of contaminated hexafluorosilicic acid to the water supply by definition must increase the cancer rate in the US because of the arsenic it contains, and this is exactly what Hirzy’s research shows. Why would any rational government do that to reduce – at best – a miniscule amount of tooth decay? According to Hirzy:

We found that the United States as a society is spending, conservatively speaking, $1 billion to $6 billion treating the excess bladder and lung cancers caused by arsenic in the most commonly used fluoridation chemical, fluorosilicic acid … The switch [to pharmaceutical-grade sodium fluoride] would cost $100 million, but would save billions in reduced cancer costs.

For people living in areas with fluoridated tap water, fluoride is a part of every glass of water, every bath and shower, and every meal cooked using that water. This makes absolutely no sense considering the carcinogenic nature of arsenic—especially in light of the epidemic of cancer.

Hirzy’s study is actually the first risk assessment of arsenic-contaminated fluoride in drinking water. This is particularly shocking considering the fact that fluorosilicic acids have been used since the early 1950s (prior to that, sodium fluoride, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was typically used). Incredibly, while the EPA performs risk assessments for most drinking water contaminants, the agency does NOT oversee the addition of fluoridation chemicals. As stated in the featured article, this policy makes no sense whatsoever.

Under the Toxic Substances Control Act, the EPA has the authority to regulate or ban almost any substance — including fluorosilicic acid — that poses an ‘unreasonable risk’ to public health, [Hirzy] said.

Appropriations Bill Would Prohibit EPA’s Phase-Out of Sulfuryl Fluoride

While we’re on the topic of fluoride, a related news item is worthy of note. Drinking water is not the only source of fluoride, as I’ve discussed previously. Fluoride also enters the human food chain via fluoridated pesticides. According to a recent report, the House of Representatives Appropriations Interior and Environmental subcommittee has voted to approve an appropriations bill that cuts the EPA’s budget by nearly one-third.

What’s worse, the bill specifically prevents the EPA from enforcing its decision to phase out sulfuryl fluoride—a neurotoxic fumigant that has been linked to cancer and neurological, developmental, and reproductive damage. If it passes once markups by the Appropriations Committee are completed, it will move to a House vote. According to the news report:

This is an outrageous attempt to circumvent a basic risk assessment calculation that EPA acknowledges puts the public at risk, given current exposure patterns, to a chemical that is especially hazardous to children.

In response, Beyond Pesticides, the Environmental Working Group (EWG), and the Fluoride Action Network (FAN) submitted a letter to the House Appropriation Committee Chairman and Ranking members, urging them to remove the section in question (section 449) from the bill. You can help by writing or calling your state Representative, asking him or her to uphold the EPA’s ability to protect the health of all Americans by removing this hazardous pesticide from our food production. There’s no need for it, as there are many other viable alternatives, including:

  • Temperature manipulation (heating and cooling)
  • Atmospheric controls (low oxygen and fumigation with carbon dioxide)
  • Biological controls (pheromones, viruses and nematodes)
  • Less toxic chemical controls, such as diatomaceous earth

Water Filtration – A Must for Clean Pure Water…

If you have well water, it would be prudent to have your water tested for arsenic and other contaminants. If you have public water, you can get local drinking water quality reports from the EPA. In general, most water supplies contain a number of potentially hazardous contaminants, from fluoride, to drugs and disinfection byproducts (DBPs), just to name a few.

I strongly recommend using a high-quality water filtration system unless you can verify the purity of your water. To be absolutely certain you are getting the purest water you can, you’ll want to filter the water both at the point of entry and at the point of use. This means filtering all the water that comes into the house, and then filtering again at the kitchen sink. I currently use a whole house carbon-based water filtration system, and prior to this I used reverse osmosis (RO) to purify my water.

You can read more about water filtration in this previous article to help you make a decision about what type of water filtration system will be best for you and your family. Since most water sources are now severely polluted, the issue of water filtration and purification couldn’t be more important.

Ideal Water Sources

Besides purification, I also believe it’s critical to drink living water. I recently interviewed Dr. Gerald Pollack about his book, The Fourth Phase of Water: Beyond Solid, Liquid, and Vapor. This fourth phase of water is referred to as “structured water” and is the type of water found in all of your cells. This water has healing properties, and is naturally created in a variety of ways.

Water from a deep spring is one excellent source of structured water. The deeper the better, as structured water is created under pressure. There’s a great website called FindaSpring.com where you can find a natural spring in your area.

But you can also promote structured water through vortexing. I personally drink vortexed water nearly exclusively as I became a big fan of Viktor Schauberger who did much pioneering work on vortexing about a century ago. Dr. Pollack found that by creating a vortex in a glass of water, you’re putting more energy into it, thereby increasing the structure of the water. According to Dr. Pollack, virtually ANY energy put into the water seems to create or build structured water.

My own R&D team is working on a careful study in which we use vortexed water to grow sprouts, to evaluate the vitality and effectiveness of the water. We are conducting extensive internal research to develop the best vortex machine on the market, because we believe an ideal vortexer could be one of the simplest ways to improve people’s health.

Water Fluoridation Is Anything But Safe…

According to Bill Hirzy, water fluoridation remains a government policy because of “institutional inertia [and] embarrassment among government agencies that have been promoting this stuff as safe.” This is probably true, yet it’s shameful that the practice is allowed to continue in the face of overwhelming evidence showing the health hazards of not just fluoride itself, but also of related contaminants such as arsenic.

Clean pure water is a prerequisite to optimal health. Industrial chemicals, drugs and other toxic additives really have no place in our water supplies. So I urge you to join the Fluoride Action Network’s efforts and your local anti-fluoride movements in the US and Canada.

Henry Sapiecha

CST Wastewater adds service division

CST Wastewater Solutions is adding a dedicated full-time Service Division to the company.

The new service is designed for municipal and industrial users of waste water and water recycling technologies that do not always have optimal engineering services available in-house, says the Managing Director of CST Wastewater solutions Michael Bambridge.

“Waste water treatment and water recovery technologies have advanced significantly in recent years, but they have to be properly installed and maintained to get the cost-savings and OHS benefits available,” he said.

“Often the councils and companies that would benefit most from the engineering and performance advances are the ones that are least able to provide the engineering skills involved from their own resources. We aim to provide services to fill that gap,” said Bambridge.

CST has provided service and maintenance on a customer request basis during this time, but increasing demand has led to the establishment of a full-time service division, led by CST’s Projects Manager, Dimce Mihailovski.

“Dimce Mihailovski has been an authority in equipment maintenance for over 30 years, and brings outstanding project management and engineering expertise to the role,” said Bambridge. “Not only does the Service Division he leads have expert knowledge of the technology and the industry, but also the team has excellent problem-solving skills and will look at each customer’s needs individually.”

The new Services Division will offer inspections, service and maintenance not only for all equipment supplied by CST, but also for screening and grit removal equipment supplied by other manufacturers. These services include:

  • Equipment performance and operational inspections
  • Breakdown service maintenance with spares supplies
  • Planned and scheduled service and maintenance

Henry Sapiecha

Researchers exploring new water-based method for testing met-coal samples

Roben Jig coal washing process could more accurately evaluate coal quality

A new method of testing exploration coal samples could not only be less harmful to the environment, it could also result in a more accurate assessment of how economically viable coal projects are.

The Canadian Carbonization Research Association (CCRA) and Geoscience BC will this month launch a research project to assess the effectiveness of a water-based cleaning process for washing exploration samples of B.C. metallurgical coal used in the steel-production process to determine coal and coke quality – key considerations in evaluating the economic feasibility of coal deposits.

“The ability to accurately evaluate coal quality and the coking characteristics of metallurgical coal during the exploration stage is essential to determining the economic viability of a coal deposit”: Melanie Mackay, president of the Western Canadian Coal SocietyThe research project will compare the water-based Roben Jig coal washing process to the traditional method of analyzing small-scale exploration samples of metallurgical coal, known as the float-and-sink method. This process uses various solvent-based chemicals such as white spirit, methylene bromide, and perchloroethylene (PCE) to remove impurities, namely ash, and produce a clean coal sample suitable for analysis. PCE, a chemical that was commonly-used in the dry cleaning industry, is also a known carcinogen posing potential health risks for laboratory workers.

Coal washing using the Roben Jig process involves loading the coal sample into a specially designed cylinder with water. A motor moves the cylinder up and down in a “jigging” motion which sorts the coal particles by density, with the heaviest particles sinking to the bottom and the lightest particles moving to the top.

“This research will help us identify the best method of determining coal quality before a mine is built,” said Melanie Mackay, president of the Western Canadian Coal Society and technical member of the CCRA. “The ability to accurately evaluate coal quality and the coking characteristics of metallurgical coal during the exploration stage is essential to determining the economic viability of a coal deposit.”

“The potential of finding a faster, safer more reliable method of determining coal quality is a real boon for the coal industry,” added Bruce Madu, vice president, minerals and mining at Geoscience BC. “Ultimately, the more accurate information a prospector or company has about the quality of coal beneath the ground, the higher the value they could get for their property or the end product.”

If the Roben Jig process provides equivalent or superior results to traditional coal washing methods, it could potentially benefit B.C. and the global coal industry by eliminating the need to use harmful chemicals for treating/cleaning coal prior to coal and coke quality analysis.

Final study results of the effectiveness of the Roben Jig process compared to coal washing using the traditional float-and-sink method will be available in the fall 2017 on Geoscience BC’s website at www.geosciencebc.com.

www.www-globalcommodities.com

Henry Sapiecha

10 Huge Water Pipe Breakdown Eruptions Around The World

How often do you get to witness a water pipe burst in the streets? Well, just pray that you never have to go through that trauma.

Here, we have compiled a list of 10 of the most fearful water pipe bursts around the world.

1. Where The Streets of A Russian City Turned into a River of Solid Ice

Pic shows: The water which had burst to the surface or flooded from the sides of buildings had formed a solid lake in the streets. At first this may look like a raging torrent of water running through a Russian town, but in fact it is a solid block of ice caused after a huge storm hit the region. People in the Russian town of Dudinka lock themselves in their homes as a powerful storm battered the region leaving many without electricity and water. But when the storm passed and they started to venture out of their homes, they found that the storm coupled with his extreme cold and not only that water mains, look at the water which had burst to the surface or flooded from the sides of buildings had formed a solid lake that had set like concrete around cars and other vehicles. These pictures make it look at first glance as if the water is bubbling and frothing around the vehicles, but the froth is actually snow and the grey coloured water underneath frozen solid ice. Other images show water pipes which had burst on houses which together with the downed power lines left the town's 22,000 residents without water or electricity and prompting local officials to declare a state of emergency. Local government spokesman Eugene Gerasimov said: "Anybody in doubt of exactly how cold it is here just need to look at the pictures which shows that even the hot water pipes were freezing, and the water that flooded out quickly formed into a solid block." The overnight low temperatures at the height of the storm had dropped to -40°C with residents that still had access to the Internet taking to social media to share stark images of their frozen town and plead for help. Several images show vehicles encased in meter-thick ice from the frozen water mains, and others show massive icicles clinging to the outsides of apartment complexes. Dudinka is located in Krasnoyarsk Krai, a massive territory in the middle of Siberia that borders the Arctic Ocean. As with many Russian built up areas hot water is provided to residential apartment blocks from a central power plant where it is centrally heated and then piped to the end destination. (ends)  

Even the hot water pipes were freezing, and the water that flooded out quickly formed into a solid block.“, said one of the residents of Dudinka (a Siberian town) on Wednesday 14th Jan 2015.

This pernicious event took place after a water main pipe burst took place after a chilly storm in Dudinka. The streets were filled with water coming out of the pipe burst.

The temperature of -52 degree Celsius didn’t help either. The entire street of the town was invisible under giant solid blocks of ice.

This incident didn’t only cancelled all the travel plans they town residents might have, they were also refused water and electricity for several hours.

2. Huge Water Pipe Burst Nearly Caused Water Crisis in Saudi Capital Riyadh

waterpipe-burst-saudi image www.h2o-water.com

According to this report, a pipeline which supplies water to Saudi’s capital Riyadh exploded near a highway. This explosion was due to a water main burst in the pipeline.

This incident took place between Janadriah and Khuraish Road. being a busy intersection, it caused a lot of traffic issues too.

This incident nearly caused a water shortage for the residents of the capital. Things were taken good control of by the members of Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC).

3. Liverpool England Witnessed A 70 Ft Water Fountain Due To A Water Pipe Eruption.

WATER-PIPE-BURST-LIVERPOOL image www.h2o-water.com

An apartment site saw an enormous water fountain in Liverpool according to the report.

A water main exploded near a residence construction site of Liverpool. The strong water pressure resulted a 70 ft massive water fountain coming out of the ground.

According to the spectators, it looked like a cloud from distance. This fountain was temporary though.

There were no losses of any kind (except a bit of traffic issues) in this case.

4. Westwood, LA Streets and Homes Get Flooded Due To Water Main Pipe Burst

WATER-MAINS-BURST-LA-USA image www.h2o-water.com

29th of July, 2014 was truly a wet afternoon for the locals of Westwood, Los Angeles.

According to the reports, an old pipe (93 years to be precise) got ruptured and started throwing around 75,000 gallons of water per minute.

Los Angeles Department of Water and Power’s Jim McDaniel said that the total loss was about 8-10 million gallons of water.

150 firefighters of Los Angeles Fire Department came in the action and around 200 vehicles were searched for casualties.

5. Water Main Burst – Streatham street, London

WATER-MAINS-BURST-LONDON IMAGE www.h2o-water.com

A Water main exploded on 1st July 2015 Streatham street, London caused traffic jam and water shortage.

It seems like Streatham street attracts such attentions. According to this report, another water line burst took place there one year later.

The later even resulted in a water shortage for majority of the areas of South London:

water-mians-burst-london-notice image www.h2o-water.com

6. When London’s Clapham Road Flooded With Foul Water & #English poo was Trending

watermains-burst-clapham-rd-london image www.h2o-water.com

That was literally a shithole in Clapham Road of London on 27th Feb 2014 when a water main burst caused flood like conditions for quite some time.

According to initial reports, a burst had taken place in a sewage pipe. This was not hard to believe given the smell and color that water had.

However, the authorities later said that there was a water main line burst and water got mixed up with silt and mud. So, no poopies.

Video from Dailymail shows the horrible conditions that night.

7. Hot Water Pipe Burst Injured 11 Bus Passengers in Russia

water-mains-russia-bus-injured image www.h2o-water.com

This might be the most fatal water pipe burst in the list as it resulted in 11 human injuries in Krasnoyarsk, eastern Siberia.

An old hot water pipe started leaking beneath the ground and made a semi visible hole in the ground. A passenger bus tried to go around the hole but the weight of the bus was just too much to damage the pipe even further.

The hot water steam filled the entire bus and the ground went super hot. Injured people were taken to the hospital.

8. A 3 year Old Died When A Water Pipe Erupted in Rio de Janeiro

water-mains-burst-rio image www.h2o-water.com

An entire neighborhood in Rio got flooded, cars got wasted and a life was lost in the March of 2013.

It looked like a fatal shower in Rio de Janeiro’s western Campo Grande district which took away everything which came across its way.

A water main exploded and threw away the water upto 65ft high in a projectile motion.

One of the eyewitnesses recorded this video of draining streets. It was like a river with strong current.

Report says 1 girl died whereas 17 were injured. There was enormous loss of properties too. Cars and homes took most of the hit.

9. 350 Residents of Stoke Newington, North London Had To Flee because of a Mains Water Pipe Rupture

water-mains-burst-north-london image www.h2o-water.com

All of this started with Blackheath getting flooded due to water pipe burst after which Islington too suffered similar pipe burst. Newington’s incident was bigger than the previous two and that’s how it made to this list.

Clearly due to aging and almost ancient water lines network in London, a 30-inch water main pipe got burst and the entire area was partially submerged under water.

This incident forced around 350 residents to abandon their homes and flee from the area.

The guardian reported London fire brigade station manager Nicol McCallum saying, “Crews used specialist inflatable boats to evacuate the most vulnerable residents and help others recover valuables. Firefighters laid down sandbags to try and minimise the water damage.

10. A Huge Sinkhole Was Opened in Selly Oak, England after a Major Water Pipe Burst

water-mains-burst-selly-oak-england image www.h2o-water.com

It was a total disaster in the making. Around late November, 2016, a water main burst took place and resulted in a huge sinkhole in Harborne Lane.

A 42- inch water main pipe got burst 10 metre underneath the ground. This resulted in a flood like situation in Selly Oak.

Just because it was a double pipe system and one of the pipes survived other’s destruction, there was no shortage of water for the local residents. Around 200,000 homes were being supplied a big of discolored water for a while though.

These were the 10 worst water pipe bursts reported around the world. If you think that any incident is missing in the list, please feel free to suggest in the comment section down below. Don’t forget to share this article. Till next time!

CLUB LIBIDO BANNER SEPIA BLUE COUPLE KISS

Henry Sapiecha

 

Scientists Now Know Exactly How Lead Got Into Flint’s Water

New report points blames corrosion and warns that fixing lead poisoning nationwide will require more work than we hoped
inside-corroded-waterpipes image www.h2o-water.com

For decades, the pipes that brought water to LeAnne Walters’ house did their job unnoticed and safely. But in summer 2014, that changed.

Suddenly, Walters found that the water spewing out of her faucets was discolored and foul-tasting; her son would come out of the bath with alarming rashes. After meticulously sampling her house’s water and testing it with at-home testing kits, Walters discovered that it had lead levels far higher than those considered safe. The chemistry of the water flowing through her pipes had changed profoundly—with toxic results.

Walters tried to contact city and state officials for guidance, but was mostly ignored. That’s when she reached out to Marc Edwards, an engineer at Virginia Tech University who studies water treatment and aquatic chemistry.

With Walters’ assistance, Edwards and his team conducted the first major study showing that lead levels in the water of more than a hundred of the city’s homes exceeded safe levels in 2014. For a new report, published yesterday in the journal Environmental Science and Technology, Edwards’ team returned to “ground zero” and used chemical analysis of water samples to see just how deep the contamination in Walters’ home ran.

old-water-tap image www.h2o-water.com

The team concludes that that avoiding lead contamination may require far more work than some think—and may even necessitate a nationwide overhaul of America’s outdated plumbing.

The root cause of the Flint lead crisis was corrosion, the new study confirms. For 50 years, Flint had purchased its water from Detroit, its neighbor 70 miles to south. However, in 2014, the cash-strapped city decided to end its agreement with Detroit and start pulling water from the Flint River until a new aqueduct was built. What officials didn’t seem to anticipate was the effect that the slightly more acidic water of the Flint River would have on the city’s pipes.

Furthermore, officials never used common corrosion control methods that Detroit and many other cities use in their water systems. Those methods include adding phosphates to the water, which help keep lead from dissolving into the water flowing through the pipes. When the city switched water supplies, this rust began to be stripped away, strongly discoloring the water and leaching the large amounts of lead from that rust into the water.

The corrosive water pumping underneath Flint quickly ate away at the protective layer inside the city’s old lead pipes, exposing bare lead to the water flowing through them. This lead was the source of the initial contamination, Edwards says. This is what happened in Walters’ house: According to the study, most of the lead appeared to come not from the lead pipe connecting her house to the main line, but from the protective rust that had built up on the house’s iron piping over the decades.

Flint switched back to using water from Detroit in October 2015, and is now adding extra phosphates to that water to help reduce lead levels. But these measures amount to just a “band-aid,” according to Edwards.

“Some people think, ‘If I get rid of the lead pipes, there’s no lead in my water,'” Edwards says. “[That’s] not true.” Definitively solving the lead pipe crisis will require more drastic efforts than just replacing existing pipes—it will require an expensive, time-consuming rehaul of the city’s entire plumbing system. Flint is now in the midst of an effort to replace the city’s thousands of lead pipes, but it’s unclear how long it will take or how much it will end up costing.

Haizhou Liu, an environmental engineer at the University of California at Riverside who studies corrosion and water quality, praised the study’s “careful sampling,” and said it shows how crucial phosphates are to controlling corrosion in water systems. More importantly, he says, it portends the future America faces with outdated water systems in the 21st century. “In my opinion, the Flint story reveals the challenges to maintain our aging water infrastructure nationwide,” says Liu, who was not involved in this study.

While not a new revelation to experts, Edwards says this study exemplifies how lead from main service pipes can build up in the galvanized iron pipes used inside and outside of many American houses built before 1987, and leach from those pipes into the water even after the lead pipes are gone. Using samples taken by Walters in January 2015 and sections of the iron pipe that connected Walters’ house to the lead service pipe, Edwards was able to pinpoint the contamination patterns.

Curt Guyette, an investigative reporter with the Michigan branch of the ACLU who helped expose the lead crisis in Flint, profiled Walters in 2014 for a documentary on the city’s growing water problems. “There’s just a very severe lack of trust,” says Guyette about Flint residents’ current relationship with both their water supply and their government officials.

This suspicion isn’t limited to Flint. Guyette says that on his travels across the country, he’s encountered many Americans who now know and worry about lead in their own drinking water. “What this study does is only add to the evidence of how widespread the concern should be,” he says. Edwards is now working to study the efficacy of Flint’s citywide efforts to replace lead pipes, and says this study is just the first step in getting the full picture.

“A lot of work still needs to be done to better understand the origins of this manmade disaster,” Edwards says.

While Flint is also planning to replace galvanized iron pipes as well as lead pipes, Guyette says, there are thousands of cities across America where lead and iron pipes have been and are still being used together. While Walters had plastic pipes inside of her house, many older homes have galvanized iron pipes in their walls, meaning that removing any chance of lead contamination would take costly renovations.

“It kind of changes your perception of how to solve these problems,” Edwards says.

Beautiful_Russian_5_300_250

Henry Sapiecha

« Previous Entries