Mains water pipe bursts in Kiev Ukraine causing severe damage as seen in this video

Water mains pipe bursts in Kiev street causing massive damage to surroundings in this video

Henry Sapiecha

Surprising Source of Arsenic in Your Drinking Water—Will EPA Take Steps to Protect Your Health?

Pure water is one of the most important foundations for optimal health. Unfortunately, most tap water is far from pure, containing a vast array of disinfection byproducts, chemicals, heavy metals and even pharmaceutical drugs. Fluoride and arsenic are two prime examples of hazardous water contaminants.

Not only is the level of arsenic in US tap water high due to natural groundwater contamination, the most commonly used form of fluoride added to water supplies also tends to be contaminated with arsenic. As reported by the featured article:

“In early August, the Environmental Protection Agency is set to decide on a petition to change the source of fluoride in US drinking water.

Currently, the source of fluoride in most public water supplies is fluorosilicic acid, according to government records. The petition calls for the EPA to instead require the use of pharmaceutical-grade sodium fluoride in water fluoridation, which is the addition of fluoride to drinking water for the purpose of preventing cavities.

Fluorosilicic acid is often contaminated with arsenic, and recent research has linked the arsenic from fluorosilicic acid in drinking water to as many as 1,800 extra cases of cancer yearly in the United States…”

The petition was submitted by William Hirzy, a chemistry researcher at the American University in Washington, D.C. Hirzy previously worked at the EPA for 27 years.

His team recently published a study entitled: “Comparison of hydrofluorosilicic acid and pharmaceutical sodium fluoride as fluoridating agents – a cost-benefit analysis”, in the journal Environmental Science & Policy.

According to their estimation, switching the type of fluoride used to pharmaceutical-grade sodium fluoride would reduce the amount of inorganic arsenic contamination in drinking water by 99 percent!

The Health Dangers of Inorganic Arsenic

Inorganic arsenic is a powerful carcinogen that has been linked to an increased risk of several types of cancer. In 2001, the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) lowered the maximum level of arsenic permitted in drinking water from 50 ug/L to 10 ug/L (or 10 parts per billion (ppb)) due to the established cancer risk.

The Natural Resources Defense Council estimates that as many as 56 million Americans living in 25 states drink water with arsenic at unsafe levels. According to the EPA:

“Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure is known to be associated with adverse health effects on several systems of the body, but is most known for causing specific types of skin lesions (sores, hyperpigmentation, and other lesions) and increased risks of cancer of the lungs and skin.”

Other impacts of chronic arsenic exposure include, according to the EPA:
  • Kidney damage and failure
  • Anemia
  • Low blood pressure
  • Shock
  • Headaches
  • Weakness
  • Delirium
  • Increased risk of diabetes
  • Adverse liver and respiratory effects, including irritation of mucous membranes
  • During development, increased incidence of preterm delivery, miscarriage, stillbirths, low birth weight, and infant mortality
  • During childhood, decreased performance in tests of intelligence and long-term memory
  • Skin lesions

Water Fluoridation Chemicals Are NOT Pharmaceutical Grade

While naturally-occurring arsenic in groundwater is one of the most common sources of exposure, hydrofluorosilicic acid—the most commonly used form of fluoride added to water supplies—is a toxic waste product from the phosphate fertilizer industry that is commonly contaminated with arsenic, radionucleotides, aluminum and other industrial contaminants.

According to the featured research, diluted fluorosilic acid adds, on average, about 0.08 ppb of arsenic to your drinking water.

Most people are shocked when they realize that the fluoride added to their water supply is actually a toxic byproduct from the fertilizer industry, opposed to a pharmaceutical-grade chemical. The source of most water fluoridation chemicals is explained by Michael Miller, a minerals commodity specialist for the US Geological Survey, in the featured article:

During the production of phosphate fertilizer, phosphate ore is reacted with sulfuric acid to produce toxic gases. These are taken out of the air after being sprayed with water, which produces fluorosilicic acid… The solution is sold to water systems nation-wide, where it is diluted and put into drinking water. Occasionally, it is treated to create sodium fluorosilicate. Together, these compounds (called silicofluorides) provide fluoride to 90 percent of U.S. drinking water systems that are fluoridated.

Water Fluoridation May Be Placing Infants at Great Risk

Not only is there mounting evidence that fluoride poses grave health risks to infants and children—including reductions in IQ—arsenic exposure in utero and during early childhood is also particularly problematic, as it can cause lasting harm to children’s developing brains, and endocrine and immune systems.

For example:
  • A 2006 study found that Chileans exposed to high levels (peaking at 1,000 ppb) of naturally-occurring arsenic in drinking water in utero and during early childhood had a six times higher lung cancer death rate compared to Chileans living in areas with lower levels of arsenic in their water. And their mortality rate in their 30s and 40s from another form of lung disease was almost 50 times higher than for people without that arsenic exposure.
  • A 2004 study showed children exposed to arsenic in drinking water at levels above 5 ppb had lower IQ scores. Earlier studies have linked chronic arsenic exposure to a range of cognitive dysfunctions, including learning disabilities, memory problems, poor concentration, and peripheral and central neuropathies.
  • A study published in 2011 examined the long-term effects of low-level exposure on more than 300 rural Texans whose groundwater was estimated to have arsenic at median levels below the federal drinking-water standard. It also found that exposure was related to poor scores in language, memory, and other brain functions.

Is It Worth Increasing Cancer Risk for Minimal, if Any, Benefit to Teeth?

Some proponents of fluoridation believe that the large dilution of these fluoridating chemicals that takes place when they are added at the public water works ameliorates concerns about the known contaminants. However, arsenic is a known human carcinogen, for which there is no safe level.

Inevitably, the addition of contaminated hexafluorosilicic acid to the water supply by definition must increase the cancer rate in the US because of the arsenic it contains, and this is exactly what Hirzy’s research shows. Why would any rational government do that to reduce – at best – a miniscule amount of tooth decay? According to Hirzy:

We found that the United States as a society is spending, conservatively speaking, $1 billion to $6 billion treating the excess bladder and lung cancers caused by arsenic in the most commonly used fluoridation chemical, fluorosilicic acid … The switch [to pharmaceutical-grade sodium fluoride] would cost $100 million, but would save billions in reduced cancer costs.

For people living in areas with fluoridated tap water, fluoride is a part of every glass of water, every bath and shower, and every meal cooked using that water. This makes absolutely no sense considering the carcinogenic nature of arsenic—especially in light of the epidemic of cancer.

Hirzy’s study is actually the first risk assessment of arsenic-contaminated fluoride in drinking water. This is particularly shocking considering the fact that fluorosilicic acids have been used since the early 1950s (prior to that, sodium fluoride, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was typically used). Incredibly, while the EPA performs risk assessments for most drinking water contaminants, the agency does NOT oversee the addition of fluoridation chemicals. As stated in the featured article, this policy makes no sense whatsoever.

Under the Toxic Substances Control Act, the EPA has the authority to regulate or ban almost any substance — including fluorosilicic acid — that poses an ‘unreasonable risk’ to public health, [Hirzy] said.

Appropriations Bill Would Prohibit EPA’s Phase-Out of Sulfuryl Fluoride

While we’re on the topic of fluoride, a related news item is worthy of note. Drinking water is not the only source of fluoride, as I’ve discussed previously. Fluoride also enters the human food chain via fluoridated pesticides. According to a recent report, the House of Representatives Appropriations Interior and Environmental subcommittee has voted to approve an appropriations bill that cuts the EPA’s budget by nearly one-third.

What’s worse, the bill specifically prevents the EPA from enforcing its decision to phase out sulfuryl fluoride—a neurotoxic fumigant that has been linked to cancer and neurological, developmental, and reproductive damage. If it passes once markups by the Appropriations Committee are completed, it will move to a House vote. According to the news report:

This is an outrageous attempt to circumvent a basic risk assessment calculation that EPA acknowledges puts the public at risk, given current exposure patterns, to a chemical that is especially hazardous to children.

In response, Beyond Pesticides, the Environmental Working Group (EWG), and the Fluoride Action Network (FAN) submitted a letter to the House Appropriation Committee Chairman and Ranking members, urging them to remove the section in question (section 449) from the bill. You can help by writing or calling your state Representative, asking him or her to uphold the EPA’s ability to protect the health of all Americans by removing this hazardous pesticide from our food production. There’s no need for it, as there are many other viable alternatives, including:

  • Temperature manipulation (heating and cooling)
  • Atmospheric controls (low oxygen and fumigation with carbon dioxide)
  • Biological controls (pheromones, viruses and nematodes)
  • Less toxic chemical controls, such as diatomaceous earth

Water Filtration – A Must for Clean Pure Water…

If you have well water, it would be prudent to have your water tested for arsenic and other contaminants. If you have public water, you can get local drinking water quality reports from the EPA. In general, most water supplies contain a number of potentially hazardous contaminants, from fluoride, to drugs and disinfection byproducts (DBPs), just to name a few.

I strongly recommend using a high-quality water filtration system unless you can verify the purity of your water. To be absolutely certain you are getting the purest water you can, you’ll want to filter the water both at the point of entry and at the point of use. This means filtering all the water that comes into the house, and then filtering again at the kitchen sink. I currently use a whole house carbon-based water filtration system, and prior to this I used reverse osmosis (RO) to purify my water.

You can read more about water filtration in this previous article to help you make a decision about what type of water filtration system will be best for you and your family. Since most water sources are now severely polluted, the issue of water filtration and purification couldn’t be more important.

Ideal Water Sources

Besides purification, I also believe it’s critical to drink living water. I recently interviewed Dr. Gerald Pollack about his book, The Fourth Phase of Water: Beyond Solid, Liquid, and Vapor. This fourth phase of water is referred to as “structured water” and is the type of water found in all of your cells. This water has healing properties, and is naturally created in a variety of ways.

Water from a deep spring is one excellent source of structured water. The deeper the better, as structured water is created under pressure. There’s a great website called FindaSpring.com where you can find a natural spring in your area.

But you can also promote structured water through vortexing. I personally drink vortexed water nearly exclusively as I became a big fan of Viktor Schauberger who did much pioneering work on vortexing about a century ago. Dr. Pollack found that by creating a vortex in a glass of water, you’re putting more energy into it, thereby increasing the structure of the water. According to Dr. Pollack, virtually ANY energy put into the water seems to create or build structured water.

My own R&D team is working on a careful study in which we use vortexed water to grow sprouts, to evaluate the vitality and effectiveness of the water. We are conducting extensive internal research to develop the best vortex machine on the market, because we believe an ideal vortexer could be one of the simplest ways to improve people’s health.

Water Fluoridation Is Anything But Safe…

According to Bill Hirzy, water fluoridation remains a government policy because of “institutional inertia [and] embarrassment among government agencies that have been promoting this stuff as safe.” This is probably true, yet it’s shameful that the practice is allowed to continue in the face of overwhelming evidence showing the health hazards of not just fluoride itself, but also of related contaminants such as arsenic.

Clean pure water is a prerequisite to optimal health. Industrial chemicals, drugs and other toxic additives really have no place in our water supplies. So I urge you to join the Fluoride Action Network’s efforts and your local anti-fluoride movements in the US and Canada.

Henry Sapiecha

CST Wastewater adds service division

CST Wastewater Solutions is adding a dedicated full-time Service Division to the company.

The new service is designed for municipal and industrial users of waste water and water recycling technologies that do not always have optimal engineering services available in-house, says the Managing Director of CST Wastewater solutions Michael Bambridge.

“Waste water treatment and water recovery technologies have advanced significantly in recent years, but they have to be properly installed and maintained to get the cost-savings and OHS benefits available,” he said.

“Often the councils and companies that would benefit most from the engineering and performance advances are the ones that are least able to provide the engineering skills involved from their own resources. We aim to provide services to fill that gap,” said Bambridge.

CST has provided service and maintenance on a customer request basis during this time, but increasing demand has led to the establishment of a full-time service division, led by CST’s Projects Manager, Dimce Mihailovski.

“Dimce Mihailovski has been an authority in equipment maintenance for over 30 years, and brings outstanding project management and engineering expertise to the role,” said Bambridge. “Not only does the Service Division he leads have expert knowledge of the technology and the industry, but also the team has excellent problem-solving skills and will look at each customer’s needs individually.”

The new Services Division will offer inspections, service and maintenance not only for all equipment supplied by CST, but also for screening and grit removal equipment supplied by other manufacturers. These services include:

  • Equipment performance and operational inspections
  • Breakdown service maintenance with spares supplies
  • Planned and scheduled service and maintenance

Henry Sapiecha

Researchers exploring new water-based method for testing met-coal samples

Roben Jig coal washing process could more accurately evaluate coal quality

A new method of testing exploration coal samples could not only be less harmful to the environment, it could also result in a more accurate assessment of how economically viable coal projects are.

The Canadian Carbonization Research Association (CCRA) and Geoscience BC will this month launch a research project to assess the effectiveness of a water-based cleaning process for washing exploration samples of B.C. metallurgical coal used in the steel-production process to determine coal and coke quality – key considerations in evaluating the economic feasibility of coal deposits.

“The ability to accurately evaluate coal quality and the coking characteristics of metallurgical coal during the exploration stage is essential to determining the economic viability of a coal deposit”: Melanie Mackay, president of the Western Canadian Coal SocietyThe research project will compare the water-based Roben Jig coal washing process to the traditional method of analyzing small-scale exploration samples of metallurgical coal, known as the float-and-sink method. This process uses various solvent-based chemicals such as white spirit, methylene bromide, and perchloroethylene (PCE) to remove impurities, namely ash, and produce a clean coal sample suitable for analysis. PCE, a chemical that was commonly-used in the dry cleaning industry, is also a known carcinogen posing potential health risks for laboratory workers.

Coal washing using the Roben Jig process involves loading the coal sample into a specially designed cylinder with water. A motor moves the cylinder up and down in a “jigging” motion which sorts the coal particles by density, with the heaviest particles sinking to the bottom and the lightest particles moving to the top.

“This research will help us identify the best method of determining coal quality before a mine is built,” said Melanie Mackay, president of the Western Canadian Coal Society and technical member of the CCRA. “The ability to accurately evaluate coal quality and the coking characteristics of metallurgical coal during the exploration stage is essential to determining the economic viability of a coal deposit.”

“The potential of finding a faster, safer more reliable method of determining coal quality is a real boon for the coal industry,” added Bruce Madu, vice president, minerals and mining at Geoscience BC. “Ultimately, the more accurate information a prospector or company has about the quality of coal beneath the ground, the higher the value they could get for their property or the end product.”

If the Roben Jig process provides equivalent or superior results to traditional coal washing methods, it could potentially benefit B.C. and the global coal industry by eliminating the need to use harmful chemicals for treating/cleaning coal prior to coal and coke quality analysis.

Final study results of the effectiveness of the Roben Jig process compared to coal washing using the traditional float-and-sink method will be available in the fall 2017 on Geoscience BC’s website at www.geosciencebc.com.

www.www-globalcommodities.com

Henry Sapiecha

10 Huge Water Pipe Breakdown Eruptions Around The World

How often do you get to witness a water pipe burst in the streets? Well, just pray that you never have to go through that trauma.

Here, we have compiled a list of 10 of the most fearful water pipe bursts around the world.

1. Where The Streets of A Russian City Turned into a River of Solid Ice

Pic shows: The water which had burst to the surface or flooded from the sides of buildings had formed a solid lake in the streets. At first this may look like a raging torrent of water running through a Russian town, but in fact it is a solid block of ice caused after a huge storm hit the region. People in the Russian town of Dudinka lock themselves in their homes as a powerful storm battered the region leaving many without electricity and water. But when the storm passed and they started to venture out of their homes, they found that the storm coupled with his extreme cold and not only that water mains, look at the water which had burst to the surface or flooded from the sides of buildings had formed a solid lake that had set like concrete around cars and other vehicles. These pictures make it look at first glance as if the water is bubbling and frothing around the vehicles, but the froth is actually snow and the grey coloured water underneath frozen solid ice. Other images show water pipes which had burst on houses which together with the downed power lines left the town's 22,000 residents without water or electricity and prompting local officials to declare a state of emergency. Local government spokesman Eugene Gerasimov said: "Anybody in doubt of exactly how cold it is here just need to look at the pictures which shows that even the hot water pipes were freezing, and the water that flooded out quickly formed into a solid block." The overnight low temperatures at the height of the storm had dropped to -40°C with residents that still had access to the Internet taking to social media to share stark images of their frozen town and plead for help. Several images show vehicles encased in meter-thick ice from the frozen water mains, and others show massive icicles clinging to the outsides of apartment complexes. Dudinka is located in Krasnoyarsk Krai, a massive territory in the middle of Siberia that borders the Arctic Ocean. As with many Russian built up areas hot water is provided to residential apartment blocks from a central power plant where it is centrally heated and then piped to the end destination. (ends)  

Even the hot water pipes were freezing, and the water that flooded out quickly formed into a solid block.“, said one of the residents of Dudinka (a Siberian town) on Wednesday 14th Jan 2015.

This pernicious event took place after a water main pipe burst took place after a chilly storm in Dudinka. The streets were filled with water coming out of the pipe burst.

The temperature of -52 degree Celsius didn’t help either. The entire street of the town was invisible under giant solid blocks of ice.

This incident didn’t only cancelled all the travel plans they town residents might have, they were also refused water and electricity for several hours.

2. Huge Water Pipe Burst Nearly Caused Water Crisis in Saudi Capital Riyadh

waterpipe-burst-saudi image www.h2o-water.com

According to this report, a pipeline which supplies water to Saudi’s capital Riyadh exploded near a highway. This explosion was due to a water main burst in the pipeline.

This incident took place between Janadriah and Khuraish Road. being a busy intersection, it caused a lot of traffic issues too.

This incident nearly caused a water shortage for the residents of the capital. Things were taken good control of by the members of Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC).

3. Liverpool England Witnessed A 70 Ft Water Fountain Due To A Water Pipe Eruption.

WATER-PIPE-BURST-LIVERPOOL image www.h2o-water.com

An apartment site saw an enormous water fountain in Liverpool according to the report.

A water main exploded near a residence construction site of Liverpool. The strong water pressure resulted a 70 ft massive water fountain coming out of the ground.

According to the spectators, it looked like a cloud from distance. This fountain was temporary though.

There were no losses of any kind (except a bit of traffic issues) in this case.

4. Westwood, LA Streets and Homes Get Flooded Due To Water Main Pipe Burst

WATER-MAINS-BURST-LA-USA image www.h2o-water.com

29th of July, 2014 was truly a wet afternoon for the locals of Westwood, Los Angeles.

According to the reports, an old pipe (93 years to be precise) got ruptured and started throwing around 75,000 gallons of water per minute.

Los Angeles Department of Water and Power’s Jim McDaniel said that the total loss was about 8-10 million gallons of water.

150 firefighters of Los Angeles Fire Department came in the action and around 200 vehicles were searched for casualties.

5. Water Main Burst – Streatham street, London

WATER-MAINS-BURST-LONDON IMAGE www.h2o-water.com

A Water main exploded on 1st July 2015 Streatham street, London caused traffic jam and water shortage.

It seems like Streatham street attracts such attentions. According to this report, another water line burst took place there one year later.

The later even resulted in a water shortage for majority of the areas of South London:

water-mians-burst-london-notice image www.h2o-water.com

6. When London’s Clapham Road Flooded With Foul Water & #English poo was Trending

watermains-burst-clapham-rd-london image www.h2o-water.com

That was literally a shithole in Clapham Road of London on 27th Feb 2014 when a water main burst caused flood like conditions for quite some time.

According to initial reports, a burst had taken place in a sewage pipe. This was not hard to believe given the smell and color that water had.

However, the authorities later said that there was a water main line burst and water got mixed up with silt and mud. So, no poopies.

Video from Dailymail shows the horrible conditions that night.

7. Hot Water Pipe Burst Injured 11 Bus Passengers in Russia

water-mains-russia-bus-injured image www.h2o-water.com

This might be the most fatal water pipe burst in the list as it resulted in 11 human injuries in Krasnoyarsk, eastern Siberia.

An old hot water pipe started leaking beneath the ground and made a semi visible hole in the ground. A passenger bus tried to go around the hole but the weight of the bus was just too much to damage the pipe even further.

The hot water steam filled the entire bus and the ground went super hot. Injured people were taken to the hospital.

8. A 3 year Old Died When A Water Pipe Erupted in Rio de Janeiro

water-mains-burst-rio image www.h2o-water.com

An entire neighborhood in Rio got flooded, cars got wasted and a life was lost in the March of 2013.

It looked like a fatal shower in Rio de Janeiro’s western Campo Grande district which took away everything which came across its way.

A water main exploded and threw away the water upto 65ft high in a projectile motion.

One of the eyewitnesses recorded this video of draining streets. It was like a river with strong current.

Report says 1 girl died whereas 17 were injured. There was enormous loss of properties too. Cars and homes took most of the hit.

9. 350 Residents of Stoke Newington, North London Had To Flee because of a Mains Water Pipe Rupture

water-mains-burst-north-london image www.h2o-water.com

All of this started with Blackheath getting flooded due to water pipe burst after which Islington too suffered similar pipe burst. Newington’s incident was bigger than the previous two and that’s how it made to this list.

Clearly due to aging and almost ancient water lines network in London, a 30-inch water main pipe got burst and the entire area was partially submerged under water.

This incident forced around 350 residents to abandon their homes and flee from the area.

The guardian reported London fire brigade station manager Nicol McCallum saying, “Crews used specialist inflatable boats to evacuate the most vulnerable residents and help others recover valuables. Firefighters laid down sandbags to try and minimise the water damage.

10. A Huge Sinkhole Was Opened in Selly Oak, England after a Major Water Pipe Burst

water-mains-burst-selly-oak-england image www.h2o-water.com

It was a total disaster in the making. Around late November, 2016, a water main burst took place and resulted in a huge sinkhole in Harborne Lane.

A 42- inch water main pipe got burst 10 metre underneath the ground. This resulted in a flood like situation in Selly Oak.

Just because it was a double pipe system and one of the pipes survived other’s destruction, there was no shortage of water for the local residents. Around 200,000 homes were being supplied a big of discolored water for a while though.

These were the 10 worst water pipe bursts reported around the world. If you think that any incident is missing in the list, please feel free to suggest in the comment section down below. Don’t forget to share this article. Till next time!

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Henry Sapiecha

 

Scientists Now Know Exactly How Lead Got Into Flint’s Water

New report points blames corrosion and warns that fixing lead poisoning nationwide will require more work than we hoped
inside-corroded-waterpipes image www.h2o-water.com

For decades, the pipes that brought water to LeAnne Walters’ house did their job unnoticed and safely. But in summer 2014, that changed.

Suddenly, Walters found that the water spewing out of her faucets was discolored and foul-tasting; her son would come out of the bath with alarming rashes. After meticulously sampling her house’s water and testing it with at-home testing kits, Walters discovered that it had lead levels far higher than those considered safe. The chemistry of the water flowing through her pipes had changed profoundly—with toxic results.

Walters tried to contact city and state officials for guidance, but was mostly ignored. That’s when she reached out to Marc Edwards, an engineer at Virginia Tech University who studies water treatment and aquatic chemistry.

With Walters’ assistance, Edwards and his team conducted the first major study showing that lead levels in the water of more than a hundred of the city’s homes exceeded safe levels in 2014. For a new report, published yesterday in the journal Environmental Science and Technology, Edwards’ team returned to “ground zero” and used chemical analysis of water samples to see just how deep the contamination in Walters’ home ran.

old-water-tap image www.h2o-water.com

The team concludes that that avoiding lead contamination may require far more work than some think—and may even necessitate a nationwide overhaul of America’s outdated plumbing.

The root cause of the Flint lead crisis was corrosion, the new study confirms. For 50 years, Flint had purchased its water from Detroit, its neighbor 70 miles to south. However, in 2014, the cash-strapped city decided to end its agreement with Detroit and start pulling water from the Flint River until a new aqueduct was built. What officials didn’t seem to anticipate was the effect that the slightly more acidic water of the Flint River would have on the city’s pipes.

Furthermore, officials never used common corrosion control methods that Detroit and many other cities use in their water systems. Those methods include adding phosphates to the water, which help keep lead from dissolving into the water flowing through the pipes. When the city switched water supplies, this rust began to be stripped away, strongly discoloring the water and leaching the large amounts of lead from that rust into the water.

The corrosive water pumping underneath Flint quickly ate away at the protective layer inside the city’s old lead pipes, exposing bare lead to the water flowing through them. This lead was the source of the initial contamination, Edwards says. This is what happened in Walters’ house: According to the study, most of the lead appeared to come not from the lead pipe connecting her house to the main line, but from the protective rust that had built up on the house’s iron piping over the decades.

Flint switched back to using water from Detroit in October 2015, and is now adding extra phosphates to that water to help reduce lead levels. But these measures amount to just a “band-aid,” according to Edwards.

“Some people think, ‘If I get rid of the lead pipes, there’s no lead in my water,'” Edwards says. “[That’s] not true.” Definitively solving the lead pipe crisis will require more drastic efforts than just replacing existing pipes—it will require an expensive, time-consuming rehaul of the city’s entire plumbing system. Flint is now in the midst of an effort to replace the city’s thousands of lead pipes, but it’s unclear how long it will take or how much it will end up costing.

Haizhou Liu, an environmental engineer at the University of California at Riverside who studies corrosion and water quality, praised the study’s “careful sampling,” and said it shows how crucial phosphates are to controlling corrosion in water systems. More importantly, he says, it portends the future America faces with outdated water systems in the 21st century. “In my opinion, the Flint story reveals the challenges to maintain our aging water infrastructure nationwide,” says Liu, who was not involved in this study.

While not a new revelation to experts, Edwards says this study exemplifies how lead from main service pipes can build up in the galvanized iron pipes used inside and outside of many American houses built before 1987, and leach from those pipes into the water even after the lead pipes are gone. Using samples taken by Walters in January 2015 and sections of the iron pipe that connected Walters’ house to the lead service pipe, Edwards was able to pinpoint the contamination patterns.

Curt Guyette, an investigative reporter with the Michigan branch of the ACLU who helped expose the lead crisis in Flint, profiled Walters in 2014 for a documentary on the city’s growing water problems. “There’s just a very severe lack of trust,” says Guyette about Flint residents’ current relationship with both their water supply and their government officials.

This suspicion isn’t limited to Flint. Guyette says that on his travels across the country, he’s encountered many Americans who now know and worry about lead in their own drinking water. “What this study does is only add to the evidence of how widespread the concern should be,” he says. Edwards is now working to study the efficacy of Flint’s citywide efforts to replace lead pipes, and says this study is just the first step in getting the full picture.

“A lot of work still needs to be done to better understand the origins of this manmade disaster,” Edwards says.

While Flint is also planning to replace galvanized iron pipes as well as lead pipes, Guyette says, there are thousands of cities across America where lead and iron pipes have been and are still being used together. While Walters had plastic pipes inside of her house, many older homes have galvanized iron pipes in their walls, meaning that removing any chance of lead contamination would take costly renovations.

“It kind of changes your perception of how to solve these problems,” Edwards says.

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Henry Sapiecha

Worlds Highest Waterfalls in an Info-Graph

Highest Waterfalls in the World
(Click above image to see an interactive chart/map)

This chart shows Highest Waterfalls in the World.

A waterfall is a place where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of drops in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls also occur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg or ice shelf. Waterfalls are commonly formed in the upper course of the river.At these times the channel is often narrow and deep.

When the river courses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens slowly, while downstream the erosion occurs more rapidly.As the watercourse increases its velocity at the edge of the waterfall, it plucks material from the riverbed. Whirlpools created in the turbulence as well as sand and stones carried by the watercourse increase the erosion capacity.

A river sometimes flows over a large step in the rocks that may have been formed by a fault line. Waterfalls can occur along the edge of a glacial trough, where a stream or river flowing into a glacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier has receded or melted. The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley are examples of this phenomenon, which is referred to as a hanging valley. Another reason hanging valleys may form is where two rivers join and one is flowing faster than the other.

Waterfalls normally form in a rocky area due to erosion. After a long period of being fully formed, the water falling off the ledge will retreat, causing a horizontal pit parallel to the waterfall wall.

Eventually, as the pit grows deeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by a steeply sloping stretch of river bed.In addition to gradual processes such as erosion, earth movement caused by earthquakes or landslides or volcanoes can cause a differential in land heights which interfere with the natural course of a water flow, and result in waterfalls.

Rank
NAME OF WATERFALL
TOTAL HEIGHT
 in metres
COUNTRY
1 KEREPAKUPAI MERÚ 3,212 ft 979 m Venezuela
2 TUGELA FALLS 3,110 ft 947 m South Africa
3 TRES HERMANAS, CATARATAS LAS 3,000 ft 914 m Peru
4 OLO’UPENA FALLS 2,953 ft 900 m United States
5 YUMBILLA, CATARATA 2,938 ft 896 m Peru
6 VINNUFALLET 2,837 ft 865 m Norway
7 SKORGA 2,835 ft 864 m Norway
8 PU’UKA’OKU FALLS 2,756 ft 840 m United States
9 JAMES BRUCE FALLS 2,755 ft 840 m Canada
10 BROWNE FALLS 2,744 ft 836 m New Zealand

CLUB LIBIDO BANNER 2 BEACH BABES IN WATER EDGE

Henry Sapiecha

Your Bottled Water could have propylene glycol, artificial colors, artificial sweeteners, and preservatives in it to make it taste & look better

drinking-water-image www.h2o-water.comATTENTION SYMBOL image www.acbocallcentre.com

When I first mentioned the “water enhancer” Stur in August (included on my Recommended Products Page), I noted I wouldn’t even try the popular brand a friend was using since it had “propylene glycol, artificial colors, artificial sweeteners, and preservatives.” Propylene glycol, not to be confused with the antifreeze ethylene glycol, is a synthetic chemical used as a humectant (moistening agent), solvent, and preservative in food and tobacco products — and one of the major ingredients of the “e-liquid” cartridges used in electronic cigarettes. Recently, Kit and I were at a class taught by an organic chemist — a Drug Enforcement Agency agent who has years of field experience. She now travels around giving classes to medics and cops about the latest trends we will encounter in the realm of street drugs. Kit couldn’t help it: she asked why the heck propylene glycol was in “water enhancer” (made to make water taste good so you’ll drink more, which is a Good Thing, right?)

The answer was fascinating: the chemist confirmed it’s used in a lot of foods, and was aghast about that; she doesn’t think it’s safe enough for consumption. The “official” reason it’s used in consumable products is that it’s mildly sweet — but surely there are much better sweeteners out there. The real reason, she said, is it’s a diuretic — it makes you thirsty! It’s also hygroscopic, pulling water out of your mucous membranes (think: the inside of your mouth), and thus dries out your mouth. Therefore, the more you drink, the more you want to drink, so you use more of the product, yet don’t really get most of the benefits of drinking more water. Insidious, isn’t it? I’m gleeful I rejected the “popular” brand in favor of the “natural” one. I just thought it was awfully interesting to hear her take on it.

CLUB LIBIDO BANNER 2 BEACH BABES IN WATER EDGE

Henry Sapiecha

Ozone pen zaps water potable as you travel

Roving Blue’s new O-Pen brings ozone purification anywhere you go

roving-blue-ozone-pen-image www.h2o-water (1)

The highlight of Overland Expo East was the large motor vehicles and trailers, but the show also had some interesting tech in smaller packages. Perhaps the smallest of all, the Roving Blue O-Pen supports off-roaders and world travelers by keeping drinking water clean and fresh. In contrast to more common purification means, like UV rays and iodine, this pen-sized, battery-powered purification device kills bacteria, protozoa and viruses with the stuff that blocks those UV rays in the atmosphere: ozone.

The concept of using ozone to treat drinking water isn’t a new one, dating back to the late 1800s. The US EPA’s Drinking Water Treatability Database identifies ozone as “one of the strongest disinfectants and oxidants available in drinking water treatment,” and the US Food and Drug Administration recognizes ozone’s use for both water and food.

Ozone has tended to be used for larger applications, such as municipal drinking water systems and household purification. Roving Blue specializes in portable systems, including the MVP-A carry case kit and the all-new O-Pen, possibly the most portable ozone-based purifier out there. The Wisconsin-based company says the stainless steel pen is TSA-approved and markets it at world travellers, hikers and outdoor enthusiasts.

roving-blue-ozone-pen-image www.h2o-water (2)

The O-Pen weighs just over an ounce (30 g) and purifies 16 oz (0.5L) of water in less than a minute. You simply drop the tip into the water, turn it on and let it do its thing. It bubbles while in use, providing a visual cue that clean water is on the way. In addition to taking care of all sizes of dangerous microorganisms, from tiny viruses to larger bacteria and protozoa, the O-Pen removes unpleasant tastes and odors, leaving a clean, fresh taste, one of the advantages that ozone offers over other treatment options, such as chlorine.

We took a look at the O-Pen at Bundutec USA’s Overland Expo East booth. At first, it seemed a little strange to see such a small, ultralight purification system there, as the show is targeted mostly at people that travel in large camping vehicles with plenty of room to store larger water treatment systems, including vehicle-integrated systems like the optional one on the Base Camp trailer. But it’s not as though such travelers never leave the vehicle to hike, boat, bike, etc., so a pocketable purifier could certainly find its uses among the attendees.

roving-blue-ozone-pen-image www.h2o-water (3)

The O-Pen seems like a natural competitor to light, portable UV purifiers. The Steripen Freedom we covered years ago, which is now listed as discontinued but available in limited quantities at various retailers in the US and Europe, weighs just over double the O-Pen at 2.6 oz (74 g) and treats 1/2 a liter of water in 48 seconds. The Freedom offers more uses per charge at 40 treatments (20 liters) versus 30 treatments (15 liters) for the O-Pen. Like the Freedom, the O-Pen recharges via USB cord.

The O-Pen launched in July and is available for US$199. That’s more expensive than any Steripen model, but perhaps the price will become more competitive over time.

Source: Roving Blue

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Henry Sapiecha

Global water crisis a serious issue for food and drink manufacturers

Global-water-crisis-a-concern-for-food-and-drinks-makers-image www.h2o-water.com

Market research company Euromonitor International’s white paper “Sustainability and the New Normal for Natural Resources” has revealed that reliable access to natural resources is of critical importance to governments, businesses and consumers.

According to the whitepaper, in 2015, the World Economic Forum mentioned water crisis as the number one long-term global threat.

Still underestimated by many businesses, water risk is a very serious and complex issue which threatens wildlife, human access to clean water and continuation of business through shortage, flooding and pollution.

A well-managed water strategy, conversely, can help build a resilient and innovative business and a strong ethical brand image.

“Water stress and poor water stewardship can have a sizeable impact on profit and a huge impact on businesses’ reputation and operations.

The most obviously affected sector is the food and drinks industry, where water is a key input.

But many other sectors are also at risk, including apparel, energy and beauty and personal care,” says Sarah Boumphrey, Global Lead of Economies and Consumers at Euromonitor International.

The whitepaper also reveals that a large amount of packaged food companies’ growth is increasingly reliant on water-stressed regions with India having the largest area harvested for cereals in 2015.

It also mentioned that soft drinks and beer record the highest absolute volume of water consumption and are highly vulnerable to water risk.

The prediction is that by 2020, 50 per cent of the global laundry detergents market by volume will be accounted for, by water stressed countries such as China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa and the US.

www.ozrural.com.au

www.energy-options.info

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Henry Sapiecha

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